5G is the fifth generation of cellular mobile communications (English: 5th generation mobile networks or 5thgeneration wireless systems). The goals of 5G performance are high data rates, reduced delays, energy savings, cost reductions, increased system capacity and large-scale device connections.
The International Organization for Standardization 3GPP has defined three major scenarios for 5G. Among them, eMBB refers to high-traffic mobile broadband services such as 3D/ultra-high-definition video, mMTC refers to large-scale Internet of Things services, and URLLC refers to services that require low-latency and high-reliability connections such as unmanned driving and industrial automation.
It can be seen from the three definitions of 3GPP scenarios that 5G should not only have high speed, but also meet higher requirements such as low latency, although high speed is still an integral part of it. From 1G to 4G, the core of mobile communication is communication between people, and personal communication is the core business of mobile communication. However, 5G communication is not only human communication, but the Internet of Things, industrial automation, unmanned driving and other services have been introduced. Communication has shifted from communication between people to communication between people and things, until between machines and machines. Communication.
Basic features of 5G
(1) High speed
With the increase of network speed, the user experience and experience will be greatly improved. Only when the network can face VR/UHD services can it be unrestricted. Only services that require high network speed can be widely promoted and used, which means that users can Zhong downloads a high-definition movie, and may also support VR video.
(2) Ubiquitous network
With the development of services, network services need to be all-encompassing and widespread. Only in this way can we support richer services and can be used in complex scenarios. The ubiquitous network provides influence at two levels: wide coverage and deep coverage.
Extensive refers to various places in our social life that require wide coverage. If 5G is covered, a large number of sensors can be deployed to monitor the environment, air quality, and even landform changes and earthquakes, which will be very valuable.
In-depth refers to the need to enter a higher-quality in-depth coverage even though the network has already been deployed. With the advent of 5G, toilets and underground parking garages with poor network quality can be widely covered by a good 5G network.
To a certain extent, the ubiquitous network is more important than high speed. Just building a high-speed network with a small number of places does not guarantee the service and experience of 5G, and the ubiquitous network is a fundamental guarantee for the 5G experience.
(3) Low power consumption
To support large-scale IoT applications, 5G must have power consumption requirements. In recent years, wearable products have developed to a certain extent, but they have encountered many bottlenecks. The biggest bottleneck is the poor experience. Nowadays, all IoT products require communication and energy. Although communication can be achieved through various means, the supply of energy can only rely on batteries. If the communication process consumes a lot of energy, it will be difficult for IoT products to be widely accepted by users. If the power consumption can be reduced, it will greatly improve the user experience and promote the rapid popularization of IoT products.
(4) Low latency
A new scenario of 5G is the highly reliable connection of unmanned driving and industrial automation. For information exchange between people, a delay of 140 milliseconds is acceptable, but if this delay is used for unmanned driving and industrial automation, it is difficult to meet the requirements. The minimum requirement of 5G for latency is 1 millisecond or even lower.
Driverless cars need to be interconnected between the central control center and the car, and the car should also be interconnected. In high-speed operations, a brake needs to instantly send information to the car to respond, about 100 milliseconds In time, the car will rush out tens of meters, which requires the shortest time delay to send information to the car for braking and car control reactions.
This is especially true for drones. For example, if hundreds of unmanned aircraft fly in formation, a very small deviation will lead to collisions and accidents. This requires information to be transmitted to the flying unmanned aircraft in a very small time delay. In the process of industrial automation, if the operation of a robotic arm is to be extremely refined to ensure the high quality and accuracy of the work, it also requires minimal time delay and the most timely response. These characteristics are not so demanding in traditional human-to-human communication or even human-machine communication, because human response is relatively slow, and it does not require the high efficiency and refinement of machines. Regardless of whether it is unmanned aircraft, unmanned vehicles or industrial automation, they are all operating at high speeds. It is also necessary to ensure timely information transmission and timely response at high speeds, which places extremely high requirements on time delay.
(5) Internet of Everything
In traditional communications, terminals are very limited. In the era of fixed telephones, telephones are defined by the crowd. In the mobile phone era, the number of terminals has exploded, and mobile phones are defined by personal applications. In the 5G era, terminals are not defined by people, because each person may have several, and each family may have several terminals.
(6) Refactoring security
The traditional Internet has to solve the problem of information speed and barrier-free transmission. Freedom, openness, and sharing are the basic spirit of the Internet, but the intelligent Internet is established on the basis of 5G. Smart Internet is not only to realize information transmission, but also to establish a new mechanism and new system for society and life. The basic spirit of the intelligent Internet is safety, management, efficiency, and convenience. In the construction of 5G networks, security issues should be addressed at the bottom layer. From the beginning of network construction, security mechanisms should be added. Information should be encrypted and the network should not be open. Special security mechanisms need to be established for special services. .
Three major application scenarios of 5G
There are three main application scenarios for 5G:
The first is to enhance mobile broadband, and its peak rate will be more than 10 times that of 4G networks;
The second is massive machine communication, which will realize the whole link from consumption to production, and the whole scene coverage from people to things, that is, “Internet of Everything”;
The third is ultra-high reliability and low-latency communication. The communication response speed will be reduced to the millisecond level. For example, the response speed of an autonomous vehicle after detecting an obstacle will be faster than human response, which will help the autonomous vehicle drive from the laboratory to the road .
5G is about to debut. Although 5G still has urgent problems in technology and applications, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has issued licenses for the use of low- and mid-band test frequencies for 5G systems to the three major operators of China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom. In 2019, 5G enters the trial commercial stage, and 5G has come strongly.